If companies cannot adopt the ethics of a host country or expand the standards of the country of origin, what is the answer? Even the traditional paint test – what would people think of your actions if they made the front page of the newspaper? – it is an unreliable guide, because there is no international consensus on standards of business conduct. The provisions of Chapters 2 and 3 apply to all public service professionals, including evaluators. A code of ethics for evaluators should not only refer to the existence of these provisions, but also address them in light of conflict-of-interest standards tailored to the specific needs of the evaluation community. Chapter 4 of the Code deals with “resolutions” relating to code interpretation, conflicts of interest and post-employment employment, as well as disclosure of wrongdoing (whistleblowing). The first five elements have already been discussed. Among other components, ethics training (or learning) is so central to the professionalization process that it deserves special attention in an ethics program. According to Houle: In addition to ethical theories, evaluators are subject to the Public Service Code of Values and Ethics (Code of Values and Ethics), which is part of the conditions of employment of federal employees in regular services and which orders public servants to comply with the behavioural requirements established by their own departments and profession. The Code of Values and Ethics contains a statement on public service values and ethics, conflict of interest measures, post-employment measures and solutions. Since evaluators are already covered by this code, their own code may be shorter and tailored to their specific needs.
Chart 1 shows whether each organization provides ethical principles or values as a basis for more specific guidelines in the form of standards or rules. Some codes are close to the Justinian code approach because they are extremely long and detailed. For example, think of the 157-page LSUC code and the ICAO code on 47 pages. The principles and values underlying the long list of rules in each code are not clearly defined and it is appropriate that these two codes be referred to as “rules of professional conduct.” In comparison, other codes (for example. B the CMAC and CCHRA codes) are closer to the Ten Commandments approach because they are relatively short and broadly expressed. The CMA code is still long on 19 pages, but between these two models. It contains 54 brief statements of “responsibilities” but “based on the fundamental principles and values of medical ethics, in particular compassion, benefit, non-virility, respect for people, justice and responsibility.” The AES does not provide ethics training for its members and there is no formal ethics advisor. When members need advice on ethical dilemmas, they are encouraged to consult the code of ethics and each other. Maintaining the code is a prerequisite for membership of the AES. The AES Board of Directors will receive complaints of code violations and may convene a body to review complaints. An offence can lead insulting members to renounce membership.
Leaders who live and work abroad and are not prepared to face moral ambiguity and tension should pack their bags and go home. The view that all business practices can be considered ethical or unethical is too simple. Einstein would have said, “Things should be as simple as possible, but not simpler.” Many business practices, considered unethical in one environment, can be ethical in another environment.