The reclamation complex of the Saratov region is one of the largest in the Volga Federal District. For more than 60 years, the FSBI Management Saratovmeliovodkhoz has been developing and maintaining reclamation systems in working condition and is the guarantor of stable agricultural production in the region’s natural climatic conditions.
The main goal of the FSBI Management Saratovmeliovodkhoz is to create the necessary conditions for increasing the production of high-quality agricultural products based on restoration and increasing the fertility of soils and agricultural lands when performing a set of agrotechnical, irrigation and drainage, cultural, agroforestry, water management and organizational measures, the exploitation of reclamation systems, transferred to the Institution for operational management, and the implementation of the federal ial target programs in the Saratov region.
Today, FSBI Management Saratovmeliovodkhoz is 10 structural branches for the operation of state systems and the head office. Here 2075 people work, who have accumulated vast invaluable experience in land reclamation and whose daily efforts manage not only to maintain, but also to develop the reclamation complex of the Saratov region. The management is under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation and is subordinate directly to the Department of Land Reclamation.
Today, the Saratov region is one of the leading places among the largest regions of our country in terms of irrigated area. The irrigated field of the region is 257.3 thousand hectares, and irrigation is carried out on 160 thousand hectares. Thanks to irrigation in the region, the yield of agricultural crops increases every year and the living standards of the rural population increase. In 2015, 315 million cubic meters of water was supplied for irrigation of agricultural land.
On the balance sheet of the Office there are 286 stationary electrified pumping stations, in which 1,180 units with a total capacity of 623.3 mW, 58 reservoirs with a capacity of 0.5 to 115 million m3 with a total volume of 567.05 million m3 of water, 1,002 kilometers of trunk and distribution channels, more than 500 complex hydraulic structures.
Annually FSBI Management Saratovmeliovodkhoz provides 200 million m3 of water to the population of the left-bank regions of the Saratov Region and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The volume, which, according to contractual relations, the FSBI Management Saratovmeliovodkhoz delivers to the Republic of Kazakhstan, is about 80 million cubic meters of water. Only in the Saratov region along the Maly and Bolshoi Uzen rivers, water is passed over more than 1000 km through 36 hydraulic structures.
– participation in the development of draft targeted programs in the field of land reclamation, improving the technical level of existing reclamation systems, separately located hydraulic structures and agricultural water supply facilities;
– implementation in the prescribed manner of federal targeted programs in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation in the territory of the Saratov region;
– coordination of the activities of all organizations located in the territory of the Saratov Region (regardless of their legal form) carrying out work on the implementation of targeted programs in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation (design, construction, reconstruction, repair, operation of reclamation systems and separately located hydraulic structures) in which the Institution acts as a state customer (customer, developer), as well as other areas of activity to ensure the fertility of agricultural land in the framework of the implementation of targeted programs;
– participation in the established order in verifying compliance with the operating rules and the condition of reclamation systems and separately located hydraulic structures, organizing accounting and monitoring of reclaimed land, certification of reclamation systems and separately located hydraulic structures, drawing up a consolidated reclamation cadastre and the results of certification of irrigation systems in general for Saratovskaya area;
– performing in the prescribed manner the functions of the state customer (customer, developer) for construction projects in the field of land reclamation, agricultural water supply and social development of the village at the expense of the federal budget in accordance with the objectives of the Institution;
– organization in accordance with the established procedure for acceptance of completed construction projects being erected as part of the implementation of federal target programs in the performance of the functions of the state customer in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation;
– organization of the technical operation of state reclamation systems and separately located hydraulic structures, agricultural water supply facilities and other state property transferred to the Institution for operational management;
– participation in the established manner in the distribution of water resources withdrawn from water bodies for the needs of land reclamation and agricultural water supply;
– participation in the established order in the prevention and liquidation of natural disasters and emergency situations on reclamation systems and separately located hydraulic structures;
– water supply to water allocation points for water consumers, water disposal from state reclamation systems;
– ensuring the safety of hydraulic structures owned by the federal government and transferred to the Institution for operational management, in accordance with the requirements of Federal Law of July 21, 1997 No. 117-FZ “On the Safety of Hydraulic Structures”.
Dust storms, dry winds, often repeated droughts – all this prevents the farmers of the Volga region to consistently receive high yields. Natural disasters cause significant damage to the economy of the region, sometimes nullify the labor and efforts of the villagers.
In addition, during the summer season the rivers become shallow, ponds and other water bodies dry up. In rural areas, despite the measures taken, there is a catastrophic lack of drinking water. And as a result of all the troubles – the migration of families of farmers from their homes to more favorable regions by natural conditions.
The dry lands of the Saratov Trans-Volga region in the summer represented a bleak picture: grass scorched by the sun and soil mottled with deep cracks. Not enough regular drinking water. The Volga region was considered a land without a future: unbearable heat and frequent droughts did not leave hope for the development of agriculture. Steppe residents still remember the time when they received a bucket of imported water per day. The drought of 1972 became the most severe, almost all rivers and ponds dried up. Water was brought in on tractors and cars. Cattle were rescued in the right-bank areas, and feed had to be delivered from Latvia, Moldova and Siberia, which was economically disadvantageous.
The only way out of this catastrophic situation for the population of the Saratov Trans-Volga region was the creation of an artificial water supply system. Scientists, engineers and agrarians thought about this possibility in the 19th century. Even the brochure, Measures Against Drought, was written. The first prototypes of today’s irrigation system appeared in 1846. With their help, only 1,400 hectares of land were cultivated.
Issues of agricultural land reclamation were widely represented at agricultural congresses in Odessa (1878), Saratov (1893), Moscow (1895), Novocherkassk (1902), Astrakhan (1911), Kiev (1913). The geography of the congresses was vast, they covered the whole country.
The issues of watering and irrigation at the congress in the city of Saratov (1893) were widely discussed, where II. Zhilinsky – head of the irrigation expedition in southern Russia. He proposed a wide program on the establishment of experimental stations for land reclamation. P.A. made many proposals for irrigation of the South-Eastern Territory. Kostychev – a scholarly soil scientist.
At the congress, several decisions were unanimously adopted, which stated: “To recognize that irrigation and watering are of paramount national importance and the urgent need of agriculture in the South-Eastern Territory.”
In October 1927 At a meeting of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR, the issue of reconstructing the agriculture of the extremely arid region of the Volga region on a water management base was considered. The USSR State Planning Commission was entrusted with the work on refining the irrigation scheme. The Special Commission created for these purposes under the chairmanship of A.V. Chaplygina carried out work to clarify the irrigation scheme.
In the theses of A.V. Chaplygin, sent to the SNK of the USSR and members of the State Planning Commission, said:
1. “The problem of reconstructing the agriculture of the Volga region in order to combat drought cannot be postponed not only because the solution determines the solution to the wheat problem, but also because of the significant agricultural development of the extremely arid region, the problem of hunger and the state is forced to periodically incur huge costs to maintain the existing agriculture in the region … “
2. “A means of effectively combating drought in the Trans-Volga region is to bring under its agriculture a water management base that provides the crops with the amount of water needed for plant growth and creates the ability to eliminate far-off land difficult for peasant farming …”
3. “A study of the economic side of the issue led to the conclusion that irrigation of the Volga region is advisable not only from the point of view of preventing periodically recurring economic disasters – starvation from drought, but also as an event that raises agriculture to a new, economically higher level …”
4. “Irrigation is not only the most reliable, but also the most effective of the opportunities put forward so far to combat drought …”.
The Commission suggested that in the next five years, surveys and studies of this scheme be undertaken in order to proceed with the preparation of a project for the wide irrigation of the Volga region.
The following fact testifies to how valuable the development of an irrigation scheme compiled using pre-revolutionary materials is: many canals and structures in our time were built in the places that were then provided.
In 1930 The government entrusted work to irrigation problems on the Volga to major academicians N.I. Vavilov, I.G. Alexandrov,
V.A. Chaplygin, N.N. Tulaykov, A.N. Kostikov, professor
For many years, individual farmers used local runoff water for irrigation of small land plots. In order to assist them in organizing the creation of irrigated sites and their operation, regional and district government bodies were created. So, in the 20s-50s of the 20th century, departments functioned under the land department, under the management of agriculture, even with the regional executive committee. In 1954 By decision of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, a regional department for land reclamation and water management was created, which was later transformed into the Saratovmeliovodkhoz Committee, and in 2002 to the Federal State Institution “Land Reclamation and Agricultural Water Supply Directorate in the Saratov Region” – Federal State Institution “Saratov Meliovodkhoz Management”.
Four decades have separated us from the day when, by decision of the Government of the USSR, powerful water management was launched in the region. Its important link was the laying of a man-made river – the Saratov irrigation and watering canal. The pace of construction was so high that already on September 8, 1972, five pumping stations started operating near Balakovo and along the concrete channel the Volga water went to the drying rivers of the Volga – the Big and Small Uzeni.
Water came to the arid region of the region (11 large regions). A huge work was done in its scope: in a short period of time a 126-kilometer canal with a cascade of pumping stations was built, the throughput capacity of its self-propelled part was 112 cubic meters. m / s
The total height of water rise from the Volga coast (near Balakovo) to the hydraulic system, which is located near the village of Gorny, reached 92 meters.
The man-made highway, replenishing the drying up rivers, ponds and other reservoirs, brought people hope and faith in the future. Large-scale housing construction has unfolded; socially significant objects — kindergartens, schools, hospitals, and cultural centers — have been built near new houses.
The 80s of the last century is the peak of development of land reclamation in the region: Large reservoirs, hundreds of kilometers of main and inter-farm canals, water pipelines were put into operation, and water supply networks with sewage treatment plants were laid in settlements.
By 1990, there were already more than half a million hectares of reclaimed land in the region. These sites were surrendered to the peasants with high quality, which allowed them to get stably high yields of fodder and vegetable crops. With the help of modern sprinklers, the problem of feed production was solved. A stable fodder base made it possible to increase milk yield and provide the population with meat and vegetables.
Not everything went smoothly in the history of land reclamation. The erroneous policy of the 90s of the last century and a decrease in funding led to the loss of almost half of the irrigated land. But life itself and the practice of using agricultural land in the risky zone of agriculture have shown that there is no alternative. It is necessary to revive reclamation. And it is a great blessing that the staff of the FSBI Saratovmeliovodkhoz managed to preserve the reclamation complex created earlier in difficult conditions.
In the early 30s of the XX century, the local irrigation department of the Saratov regional land department was created and operated .
In the late 30s and early 40s, the Irrigation Department of the Saratov Regional Land Department.
In accordance with the Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR of November 21, 1943, by the decision of the Saratov Oblast Executive Committee of December 9, 1943 (Minutes No. 151), on January 1, 1944, a local irrigation department was established under the Saratov Oblast Executive Committee.
Based on the instructions of the State Staff Commission No. 9-1209 of June 25, 1948 and the decision of the Saratov regional executive committee of August 5, 1948 (protocol No. 35), the local irrigation department at the regional executive committee was renamed the water management department at the Saratov regional executive committee.
By the decision of the Saratov Oblast Executive Committee in 1953, a water management department was created under the Saratov Regional Administration of Agriculture and Harvesting .
On the basis of the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of September 14, 1954 No. 1508 “On the formation of regional water management departments, the regional water management department was allocated from the Saratov regional agricultural department.
In pursuance of the Decree of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for the RSFSR and the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of November 16, 1963 No. 1337 of the bureau of the Saratov village regional committee of the CPSU and the regional executive committee, by resolution of April 17, 1964 (protocol No. 8), the regional water management was reorganized into the Saratov Department of Irrigated Agriculture and water industry.
Based on the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of December 27, 1965 No. 1470 and the decision of the regional executive committee of January 10, 1966 No. 4, the regional department for irrigated agriculture and water management was reorganized into the Saratov regional department of land reclamation and water management.
In accordance with Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of May 18, 1978 No. 374, by order of the Minister of Land Reclamation and Water Resources of the RSFSR of June 25, 1978 No. 452, the Saratov Production Directorate for Land Reclamation and Water Management was established.
By the decision of the Committee on Property Management of the Saratov Region dated February 15, 1993 No. 275 in connection with the reorganization of the regional production department of land reclamation and water management, the State agricultural enterprise for the operation of agricultural reclamation systems and water supply “Saratovselmeliovodkhoz” was created.
By order of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Russian Federation dated March 17, 1994 No. 54 in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated February 10, 1994 No. 96 “On the delegation of powers of the Government of the Russian Federation to manage and dispose of federal property” a state enterprise for land reclamation and water management in the Saratov region “Saratovmeliovodkhoz”.
By order of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Russian Federation dated February 19, 1997 No. 157 “On a specially authorized state body in the field of land reclamation in the Saratov region”, the state enterprise for land reclamation and water management was transformed into a State institution – the committee on land reclamation and agricultural water supply in Saratov the area of ”Saratov Meliovodkhoz”.
By order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation of March 22, 2002 No. 293 “On the Federal State Institution“ Land Reclamation and Agricultural Water Supply Administration in the Saratov Region ”, the Committee on Land Reclamation and Agricultural Water Supply in the Saratov Region” was reorganized into the federal state institution “Land Reclamation Administration and agricultural water supply in the Saratov region “(Federal State Institution” Management “Saratov Melioiodhoz”)
By order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation dated May 17, 2011 No. 126 “On renaming FSI to FSBI”, the federal state institution “Land Reclamation and Agricultural Water Supply Administration in the Saratov Region” (FSI “Saratov Meliovodkhoz Management”) was renamed into the federal state budget institution “Management land reclamation and agricultural water supply in the Saratov region “(FSBI” Management “Saratovmeliovodkhoz”) .